As a multi-ethnic country with 54 different ethnic groups such as Kinh, Thai, Tay, Nung, Muong, Dao, it is not surprising that Vietnam is considered a country with a rich, diverse and unique culture.

The emoji set “54 ethnic groups” – Author Nguyen Minh Ngoc

The Kinh is the largest community in the country, accounting for about 90% of the population across the country. This is an ethnic group that not only has a very unique and different cultural identity but also owns famous architectural works and landscapes both domestically and abroad. Here are some typical features of Kinh culture that you can learn about.

Customs and habits

The customs of the Kinh people are unique and diverse, expressed through their extensive vocabulary from ancient stories, folk songs, proverbs to poems, prose, books, and poems. It is a saying, “a storm not by grammar Vietnam.” Each sentence, each word describes a crisp cultural communication, behavior Kinh.

In particular, the Kinh people have many different traditional festivals diverse, unique in all country regions leading: festival regatta, the Lim, Gio, Hung Vuong …


The Vietnamese cuisine people in the region Different regions have distinct differences, but there are still two unifying factors: rice plays the leading role, and there must be sauces and spices in meals. Every meal is usually the total harmony of the dish from start to finish meal. This makes dishes North, Central, South and specific to just can the balance on the table of Vietnamese cuisine.

Vietnamese foods have an outstanding balance of flavors such as sour, spicy, salty, sweet, bitter, and acrid and a perfect balance of nutrition for both Vietnamese people and foreign tourists. When coming to Vietnam, you have to fall in love with the flavors of Pho, Bun Cha, Bun Bo Hue….

Vietnamese cuisine is easy but not easy, simple but not simple. When Gordon Ramsay’s head, when trying to make Vietnamese Banh Cuon had to exclaim, “Thank God I wasn’t born in Vietnam, I’m just a bad cook here,” it must have been an extraordinary job. Unfamiliar and difficult for him.


The Kinh is the largest ethnic group with the most diverse culture in Vietnam. The costumes of the Kinh people are rich in types and unique in designs and styles of wearing in different regions and regions.

Northern Vietnam stands out for its four-body shirt and was popularly worn until the early twentieth century. In combination with the four-body shirt, it is always necessary to have a bib, a scarf, and a hat with sports straps on the head. That image is kept to this day in the Quan Ho district in Kinh Bac.

Áo Bà Ba is always associated with the South of Vietnam people who are in the Mekong Delta often have to go to the fields. The weather in the South is outstanding with two seasons of rain and sunshine, so Áo Bà Ba is a great choice, both cool, easy to wash, and quick to dry.

To the costumes of the Kinh people, it is impossible not to mention Áo Dài. A basic Áo Dài is designed to be slim, body fitting, with a high neck. The front and back flaps of the Áo Dài extend from the neck to the ankles and cover the wide-leg pants with the hem touching the ground. Over time, Áo Dài has had many changes in line with the development of the times but still contains the national spirit of the Vietnamese people. Wherever we go, appear in any event, when we put on the Áo Dài, each of us certainly feels exceptionally proud.

Kinh people possess incredibly diverse, rich, and unique cultural features and impress many people thanks to their unique cuisine, containing all the quintessence of the nation. Áo Dài Canad hopes the above information will help you understand more about Kinh culture.




Marking five years of operation, Áo Dài Canada aims to develop, preserve and honor the arts and culture of Vietnamese Canadians, and at the same time, raise awareness against human trafficking. Áo Dài Canada has been achieving many memorable successes.

To bring the image of Ao Dai and the beauty of culture and traditions of the Vietnamese people closer to the world, Áo Dài Canada was fortunate to successfully organize many activities and receive a lot of responses from the attendees. :

– Taste of Vietnam 2019 – with the theme honoring 54 Vietnamese ethnic groups, is a Vietnamese cultural festival held in Toronto, Canada, bringing together more than 250 volunteers participating in many different fields with more than 18000 participants. attend. The program has brought the beauty of the Vietnamese people, spread the cultural identity to international friends, and contributed to preserving the national tradition.

In addition, ADC also conducts Gala Night every year with many artistic performances imbued with unique cultural identities such as folk songs, court music, etc. The program has also received the participation of many people and other partners in Canada.

– Besides, Áo Dài Canada also organizes online activities such as photo contests with Ao Dai to honor the beauty of people through Vietnamese Ao Dai. The contest is also an opportunity to meet and interact with all of the overseas Vietnamese community. Moreover, the contest is also a voice contributing to raising awareness of the community and ourselves about combating human trafficking and child abuse.

After five years with many thought activities that have been organized and are being held, with the spirit of charity and the goal of spreading the beauty of traditional culture to the world, Áo Dài Canada hopes not only to continue to receive support from a large number of overseas Vietnamese but also with the participation of many volunteers from different countries.




Through many ups and downs along with history, the Áo Dài has always been a cultural symbol associated with the image of a loving and gentle Vietnamese woman. Since the first Áo Dài appeared under Nguyễn Phúc Khoát (1739 – 1765) Dynasty, Áo Dài has been sewed in new, fresh materials, patterns, and modern designs. This costume still brings femininity and tenderness and sticks with Vietnamese women’s daily lives, from holidays, Tet, weddings, parties, from work to school.

And in recent times, the image of Tà Áo Dài is being covered in the media with fear of responding to the love of young people, especially the reappearance of Áo Ngũ Thân of the Nguyễn Dynasty. Despite many changes, Áo Dài still retains the design of two ankle-length front and back skirts that cover the outside of the trousers.

The changes help the Áo Dài become more completed with an aesthetic and create a unique beauty for the traditional costume of Vietnam. First of all, let’s talk about the collar. For the conventional Áo Dài, the neck is 4 – 5cm high, with a V-shaped cut in the front to enhance the delicate beauty of the woman.

Today, the Áo Dài collar style is varied quite diversely, such as heart, round neck, U-neck, suitable for all neck shapes and highlighting the delicate features of the wearer. Bodies, hems, and sleeves combined with a variety of fabrics create a multitude of shades. Áo Dài is sewn from velvet brocade to make a solemn feeling, suitable for weddings and Tet holidays.

Young women and girls prefer softer materials and fresher colors. The Áo Dài is often paired with white silk or satin pants. These two things blend to create a delicate, graceful beauty. Different from the other countries’ traditional costumes, the Vietnamese Áo Dài is simple and neat.

For significant events, Ao Dai brings the wearer an elegant, graceful, and highly luxurious look. In daily events, Áo Dài is light and agile, bringing our nation’s beauty and tradition to international friends. Perhaps because of purity meanings.

Áo Dài has surpassed its value as a consumer product, Áo Dài has been chosen as a bridge between generations to represent tradition, culture, and people of Vietnam.




Although well known As a symbol of Vietnamese culture, people may not know that the Vietnamese Áo Dài has an exciting journey of more than 270 years with memorable milestones

With almost 270 years in the making; it can be said that Áo Dài is genuinely a cultural symbol of the Vietnamese people. Let’s take a look at the memorable milestones of the costume full of Vietnamese national spirit.

Since when has Áo Dài come to life?

The majority of Vietnamese commonly understand that the most accurate depiction of the modern Ao Dai started to appear from the late 19th century of the Nguyễn Dynasty, although few are aware that the predecessor of the Áo Dài was Áo Giao Lĩnh that first appeared in the years of 38 – 42 AD which, According to historical records, was most commonly associated with women’s ordinary costume. 

Áo Giao Lĩnh is also known as Áo Đối Lĩnh that is sewn in wide format, having both sides slipping, wide wrists, and body parts ending with heels. Áo Giao Lĩnh’s body part is sewn with four fabrics combined with a colored belt and a black skirt. Áo Giao Lĩnh has a cross-collar form , similar to Áo Tứ Thân.

In particular, this is the costume worn by three famous female generals, first by the two Mrs. Trưng, then by Mrs. Triệu, during the battles against the invaders at that time.

When wearing Áo Tứ Thân, the woman uses three different layers: the outermost is four pieces of evenly divided fabric, followed by a blouse, and the innermost is a camisole. The outer layer of Áo Tứ Thân is long from the neck to the knee; the bar behind the longitudinal edge is sewn to make a form for the back of the shirt. Inside, women wear camisoles, older women wear dark camisoles, and younger women wear red ones. When wearing Áo Tứ Thân, it is always accompanied by a belt made of silk or a “Scepter” used to hold money and small trinkets. This is also the detail that makes Áo Giao Lĩnh and Áo Tứ Thân similar.

According to some historical documents, under the reign of King Gia Long (1806 – 1820), Áo Giao Lĩnh was changed and officially became Áo Ngũ Thân by the request of the Royal Family. This design consists of 2 flaps in the back, two flaps in the front, and a hidden flap in the front. This is also a pioneering design in the waist slipping, a detail that has been kept until now. Unlike today, the Áo Ngũ Thân was short and wide for being convenient in life. This also gradually became the costume of mandarins and aristocrats to distinguish them from the rest of the lower classes of society at that time, whether male or female.

Innovation brings a new breeze to Vietnamese Áo Dài.

At the beginning of the 20th century, under the Western influence on domestic fashion, Áo Dài officially changed after nearly 100 years of appearance by a Hanoi designer named Nguyễn Cát Tường, with nickname Le Mur.


He is the one who reduced the size of Áo Dài to create a body-fitting design. Le Mur also added other details, such as pushing the shoulder blades and stretching the sleeves to touch the ground with more beautiful colors. With only four years of popularity, the Vietnamese Áo Dài style has become sophisticated, sexy, attractive, and received attention in society. 

However, in the late 50s, Áo Dài was again transformed by Mrs. Trần Lệ Xuân, also known as Mrs. Nhu beside her husband Ngô Đình Nhu. She cleverly changed the design of Áo Dài with a V-neck showing off the elegant neck, shoulders, and collarbones of Vietnamese women, and at the same time used gloves – a Western fashion accessory to raise the feminine spirit. 

Rising above all odds and shining bright as a cultural symbol of Vietnamese people.

Over time, Áo Dài has changed and was more popularly adopted in the South of Vietnam during the 70s – 80s. In the 1960s, Dung tailors in the Dakao district, Saigon city, introduced the hand-assembled raglan method for their new Áo Dài. With this assembly, the sleeves are connected from the slanted neck to the armpit. The front hem connects to the back hem through a row of buttons from the neck down to the armpit and along one side. This assembly-type minimizes the armpits’ wrinkles, allows the shirt to fit snugly according to the wearer’s curves, and helps women move their hands freely and flexibly. The style of the Vietnamese Áo Dài has been revolutionized from this point onward!

And this design is almost preserved throughout modern times as a standard of Vietnamese women’s Áo Dài. Of course, during its existence, Áo Dài also has newer innovative variations but is not far too different from the original ones. This costume is known as one of the most beautiful traditional costumes in Southeast Asia, in particular, and the globe, in general. 

With a history of nearly three millennia, Áo Dài carries the quintessence in culture and pure fashion spirit with a glorious history of Vietnamese aesthetic wear. What do you think about Vietnamese Áo Dài?

Source: collected and edited by Áo Dài Canada. (more…)